Evidens og forskning

Hypnose generelt

Der er en imponerende og omfattende mængde af forskningsprojekter, der har undersøgt effekten af forskellige behandlinger med hypnose. Der er lavet næsten 13.000 pålidelige undersøgelser. Her på siden vil jeg trække et par stykker frem, og vise dig, hvor du kan finde mere, hvis du er interesseret i specielle områder, som jeg ikke kommer ind på her.

Allerførst vil jeg nævne et par gode generelle ressourcer, hvor du selv kan søge efter undersøgelser indenfor de emner, du gerne vil vide mere om:

1) International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
2) PubMed, som giver mulighed for søgning i en enorm database med videnskabelige undersøgelser inden for sundhedsområdet. Det er US Government’s National Library of Medicine, der vedligeholder basen.

Herefter får du et udpluk af nogle af de undersøgelser, der er lavet i forhold til konkrete behandlinger.

forskning i hypnose

Vægttab

I en metaanalyse (en metaanalyse er en samlet analyse af eksisterende undersøgelser) fra 1996 “Hypnotic enhancement of cognitive-behavioral weight loss treatments — Another meta-reanalysis”, der kortlagde effekten af kognitiv adfærdsterapi (CBT) med og uden brug af hypnose i forbindelse med vægttab, fandt Irving Kirsch, at det gennemsnitlige vægttab for deltagerne i forsøg med CBT var 2,72 kg, mens det ved CBT kombineret med hypnoseterapi var på 5,37 kg. Stigende til hhv. 2,74 kg med CBT og 6,75 kg med CBT og hypnoseterapi ved den sidste måling i forsøgene.

Correlational analyses indicated that the benefits of hypnosis increased substantially over time.

Irriteret tarm (IBS)

I sammenfatningen af  “Hypnosis for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: The Empirical Evidence of Therapeutic Effects, William E. Whitehead” publiceret i International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, vol 54, 2007 hedder det blandt andet:

Eleven studies, including 5 controlled studies, have assessed the therapeutic effects of hypnosis for IBS. Although this literature has significant limitations, such as small sample sizes and lack of parallel comparisons with other treatments, this body of research consistently shows hypnosis to have a substantial therapeutic impact on IBS, even for patients unresponsive to standard medical interventions. The median response rate to hypnosis treatment is 87%, bowel symptoms can generally be expected to improve by about half, psychological symptoms and life functioning improve after treatment, and therapeutic gains are well maintained for most patients for years after the end of treatment.

Smerter, astma, eksem

En artikel om brugen af hypnose i sundhedspleje “The use of hypnosis in healthcare. Vanhaudenhuyse A, Faymonville MÉ.”.

Hypnosis has proved successful in a variety of clinical situations such as alleviation of acute or chronic pain and other chronic debilitating conditions (asthma-eczema). Many psychotherapists utilize imagery to facilitate the process of change, treating depression with hypnosis and integrating patient centered strategic approaches (challenge efficacy of psychotherapy). This article focuses on delivering of hypnotic interventions for pain and will provide a very short overview of core issues in the development of the cognitive neuroscience of hypnosis and conscious state.

IBS – irriteret tarm, smerte, angst/stress inden operation

NBC news skriver i 2011 om, hvordan hypnose vinder fodfæste indenfor sundhedsområdet. Artiklens fokus er irriteret tarm (IBS), men også andre områder nævnes. Se artiklen her.
Her et citat fra artiklen:

Over the last decade, more and more research shows there are benefits of hypnosis for medical problems. In addition to IBS, a number of rigorous studies have found the practice is effective at mollifying chronic pain and reducing stress and anxiety before surgery. Studies have also shown hypnosis reduces health care costs — patients who use it stay in the hospital for shorter periods and use less medication.

American Psychological Foundation henviser til en undersøgelse fra 2003, hvor der blev opnået særdeles gode resultater i behandlingen af irriteret tarm med hypnoseterapi. Se artiklen her.
Her et citat fra artiklen:

While there are plenty of examples in the scientific literature attesting to the usefulness of clinical hypnosis, a study published in the journal Gut is noteworthy. The study involved 204 people suffering from Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Treatment consisted of 12 weekly sessions of hypnosis (lasting about one hour each). Fifty-eight percent of the men and 75 percent of the women reported significant symptom relief immediately after finishing treatment. More than 80 percent of those who reported initial relief were still improved up to six years later. Fewer than 10 percent of the participants tried other treatments after hypnotherapy.

Fobier

I denne forskningsartikel “Hypnosis in the Treatment of Phobias: A Review of the Literature” konkluderes det:

It was concluded that hypnosis is an effective and efficient adjunct in the treatment of phobias.

Depression

En undersøgelse fra 2007 viser, at behandling af depression med kognitiv terapi forbedres markant, når den kombineres med hypnose.

Cognitive hypnotherapy for depression: an empirical investigation. Assen Alladin & Alisha Alibhai. University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

To investigate the effectiveness of cognitive hypnotherapy (CH), hypnosis combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), on depression, 84 depressives were randomly assigned to 16 weeks of treatment of either CH or CBT alone. At the end of treatment, patients from both groups significantly improved compared to baseline scores. However, the CH group produced significantly larger changes in Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Hopelessness Scale. Effect size calculations showed that the CH group produced 6%, 5%, and 8% greater reduction in depression, anxiety, and hopelessness, respectively, over and above the CBT group. The effect size was maintained at 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. This study represents the first controlled comparison of hypnotherapy with a well-established psychotherapy for depression, meeting the APA criteria for a “probably efficacious” treatment for depression.

Søvn

En metaanalyse fra 2017 af i alt 139 studier konkluderer, at hypnose viser meget lovende resultater i forhold til at behandle søvnproblemer.

Hypnosis Intervention Effects on Sleep Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

Overall, 58.3% of the included studies reported hypnosis benefit on sleep outcomes, with 12.5% reporting mixed results, and 29.2% reporting no hypnosis benefit; when only studies with lower risk of bias were reviewed the patterns were similar. Hypnosis intervention procedures were summarized and incidence of adverse experiences assessed.

CONCLUSIONS:

Hypnosis for sleep problems is a promising treatment that merits further investigation. Available evidence suggests low incidence of adverse events. The current evidence is limited because of few studies assessing populations with sleep complaints, small samples, and low methodological quality of the included studies. Our review points out some beneficial hypnosis effects on sleep but more high-quality studies on this topic are warranted.

Angst, hovedpine, irriteret tarm (IBS)

Nedenfor er gengivet et citat fra “Hypnosis in the treatment of anxiety- and stress-related disorders, D Corydon Hammond; Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics Vol. 10 , Iss. 2,2010”

The tremendous volume of research provides compelling evidence that hypnosis is an efficacious treatment for state anxiety (e.g., prior to tests, surgery and medical procedures) and anxiety-related disorders, such as headaches and irritable bowel syndrome.

Hjerneskade

I Danmark er der lige nu et spændende 2 årigt forsøg i gang, der handler om at afdække, om senhjerneskadede personer kan hjælpes i arbejde med hypnoseterapi. Læs mere om forsøget her.

Forsøget, der har fået knap 1 mill. kr. fra Tryg Fonden, udspringer af et forsøg, der blev lavet i 2016, som viste særdeles gode resultater. Her skriver DR Nyheder om det oprindelige forsøg. De skriver blandt andet:

Hos samtlige 49 personer, der fik hypnose, kunne forskerne med testen efterfølgende måle en bedring i deres hukommelse. Forbedringen var så stor, at forsøgsdeltagerne efter hypnoserne kunne huske lige så godt som normalbefolkningen, fortæller Jonas Lindeløv